Are electronic lab notebooks for individuals or groups?

Posted by Rory on November 11th, 2010 @ 5:51 pm

I wrote a post last week over on Bitesize Bio comparing electronic lab notebooks to other collaborative tools like wikis and Google Docs.  What was interesting is that most of the people who commented on the post were looking not for a collaborative tool but for something they could use to document their own research, i.e. an individual tool.  This lack of clarity about whether electronic lab notebooks are intended for group or individual use dogs much of the discussion about  ELNs, which tends to get bogged down in debates  about particular features people would like to see in an electronic lab notebook.   See for example the discussion currently going on here.

I thought I’d try to unpick some of the confusion by separating out what elements are essential in electronic lab notebooks used by both groups and individuals, from features that are useful only for groups.

Features for groups and individuals

I have argued previously that the ability to add structure to the research record is the key distinguishing feature of an electronic lab notebook.  That’s because with structure you can replicate online what has traditionally gone in a paper lab notebook, and so the electronic lab notebook can become a replacement for the paper lab notebook.  So in my view neither simple online note-taking devices nor wikis qualify as electronic lab notebooks because they don’t let you add structure to the record of your research.  In the majority of cases people who have adopted note-taking devices or wikis use them along with, not instead of, paper lab notebooks.

Putting structure into the research record is equally important for both groups and individuals who are documenting their research.  And for individuals, that’s it!  The ability to create an online structured record of their research is really all they need.

Features for groups

Groups of researchers need two additional things in an electronic lab notebook, the ability to:

  • Share research data and information, and
  • Communicate about their research

Sharing research data and information

By definition a group of researchers needs to share data and information.    An electronic lab notebook needs to allow the group to do this in a controlled way.    It therefore needs a permissions system that allows some records to be kept private and other records to be shared with everyone or with selected members of the group.  To do this it needs to have an administrator.

Communicating

In order to collaborate effectively groups of researchers need to be able to communicate about their research. Obviously there are plenty of ways to do that outside the electronic lab notebook.  But that’s limiting because it’s not possible, or at least not convenient, for members of the group to communicate about the research they are undertaking in the context of the research itself.  Therefore to be fully effective an electronic lab notebook should include an internal means of communication, e.g. a messaging or notifications capability, and this should include the ability to link the messages or notifications to the record of the research, e.g. experiment records.

Conclusion

In conclusion, electronic lab notebooks can be useful for both individuals and groups. Both individual and group users need the structuring capability electronic lab notebooks provide.  And groups in addition need to use the collaborative and communication capabilities of ELNs.  Beyond that it’s all about features, which are important, but I think it’s useful to separate the woods from the trees, and diving in to a discussion about features without thinking about these broader issues often proves to be unproductive.

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Who are electronic lab notebooks for?

Posted by Rory on October 13th, 2010 @ 10:48 am

In last week’s post I looked at what electronic lab notebooks are for, and said that they enable groups of researchers to conveniently carry out four central aspects of the research process:

  • Record experimental data and other kinds of information
  • Add structure to the data and information
  • Share the data and information
  • Communicate about their research

The answer to the question, ‘who are electronic lab notebooks for?’ is implied within that statement, namely ‘groups of researchers’.  This week I’d like to zero in on the makeup of a typical group of researchers in an academic lab, and ask the question, among that group, who benefits from use of an electronic notebook and why?  Just the PI?  Postdocs? Graduate students?  Research assistants and technicians?

PIs

Lets start with the PI.  In most cases the PI drives the decision to adopt an electronic lab notebook.  PIs benefit from their lab using an electronic lab notebook in lots of ways — some of the things they like include:

  1. Having everyone in the lab working in an integrated environment.
  2. Having everyone using common structures to document their research, e.g. for experiments and protocols.
  3. For online electronic lab notebooks, the ability to access their own work, and that of other members of the lab, 24/7, from any web browser, when they are at home in the evening or on the other side of the world at a conference.
  4. The ability for lab members to conveniently work in groups.
  5. The ability to link experimental data with other kinds of information, e.g. protocols, and with physical things like reagents.
  6. Having an integrated searchable archive of the lab’s work that allows them and other lab members to find and make use of work done by existing lab members and those who have already left the lab.

Postdocs

Postdocs don’t have the same global view on the lab’s needs as PIs, nor do they have the PI’s long term interest in the efficiency of the lab or creating a usable, searchable archive of its research.  But they almost certainly will be working closely with others in the lab — the PI, one or more graduate students, and perhaps a research associate or technician — on their own projects and other projects involving lab members.  For that they will benefit from many of the same group advantages of using and electronic lab notebook that are valued by PIs:

  1. Having everyone using common structures to document their research, e.g. for experiments and protocols.
  2. For online electronic lab notebooks, the ability to access their own work, and that of other members of the lab, 24/7, from any web browser, when they are at home in the evening or on the other side of the world at a conference.
  3. The ability for lab members to conveniently work in groups.
  4. The ability to link experimental data with other kinds of information, e.g. protocols, and with physical things like reagents.

In addition, PIs are likely to particularly appreciate the benefits an electronic lab notebook brings in terms of documenting their own research, including:

  1. The automatic introduction of structure into their research record.
  2. Ease of use.
  3. Having data well organized in a form that it can conveniently be incorporated into presentations and papers.

PhD students

PhD students, and other graduate students, are likely to value these last three benefits just as highly as postdocs.  And they, too, benefit from the group aspects of the electronic lab notebook. For example,with an electronic lab notebook they can share information and ideas online with others in the lab — the PI and other students whose brain they want to pick or whose experiments they are keeping up with.   An electronic lab notebook means easier access to the PI — it’s no longer necessary to corral the PI during office hours to look at your paper lab notebook — with an electronic lab notebook you can send the PI a message with a link to your latest experiment and ask the PI to comment when he or she has time.

Unlike the PI and postdocs, at the end of the day graduate students are focussed on getting a degree, and that means their own work is of paramount importance.  In this respect they are likely to particularly appreciate the fact that electronic lab notebooks provide the flexibility for some records to be shared and others to kept entirely private.  So graduate students (and of course others in the lab) benefit from the group and sharing capabilities of the electronic lab notebook while at the same time having their own private space.  They can keep some records private forever, and other records private until they are ready to be shared, or reviewed, by others in the lab.

Research associates and technicians

What makes the life of research associates and technicians different from that of PIs, postdocs and graduate students is that their focus  is not their own research but  the work of  others.  They are supporting others, and  helping to organize the lab and ensure that the lab and its equipment, computers, and systems are running as well as possible.  In that regard they will from the enhanced structure, organization, and communication the introduction of an electronic lab notebook brings to the lab.

  1. With the structured records you can set up in  an electronic lab notebook it is much easier to get buy in from everyone to use common forms and formats for things that everyone in the lab needs to use, like protocols.
  2. With an electronic lab notebook lab members can document their experiments in the same online environment that is used to store and share general information like meeting notes and protocols — that makes for much better organization.
  3. With the electronic lab notebook’s messaging system technicians and research associates can communicate with lab members 24/7, and do this in a targeted way — for example if they have a question about a protocol someone has submitted, they can send a message with the question and insert a link to the protocol, making it easier for the recipient to respond quickly.

The bottom line?  Everyone in the lab benefits from the introduction of an electronic lab notebook!

What are electronic lab notebooks for?

Posted by Rory on October 6th, 2010 @ 4:23 pm

1.  Introduction

Electronic lab notebooks enable groups of researchers to conveniently carry out four central aspects of the research process:

  • Record experimental data and other kinds of information
  • Add structure to the data and information
  • Share the data and information
  • Communicate about their research

Electronic lab notebooks differ from other tools used in recording experimental data, like paper lab notebooks and electronic media such as word documents, spreadsheets,and wikis, in that they enable researchers to carry out all four of these functions in an integrated, ideally online, environment.

2.  Recording experimental data and other information

Electronic lab notebooks enable recording of experimental data, and other information like meeting notes and protocols, in two ways. First, they allow import of data which has already been captured elsewhere — e.g. in word documents, spreadsheets and images.  Second, they permit direct recording of data in various forms — text, tables, images, etc.

3.  Adding structure to data and information

Like paper lab notebooks, but unlike other electronic media such as word documents, spreadsheets, and wikis, electronic lab notebooks enable research groups to bring structure to their data.  They do this in a variety of ways:

  • By providing the ability to use records which, unlike the blank page of the word document or wiki, themselves have structure.  This is illustrated In the example below, where the record has a series of fields; Alternative name, Source, Lab, etc.

  • With preformatted template records likely to be of use to many researchers, e.g. for experiments, antibodies, protocols,and  inventory
  • By providing the ability to create records with a structure desired by the user, and including a range of field types, such as strings, radio buttons, dates, etc.

The structure which is added to the research record is invaluable not only in terms of immediate organization, but also in terms of later search and archiving.  The field structure make it possible to conduct fine grained searches which go below the record level.  In the above example, the lab might have thousands of antibody records; taking advantage of the field structure it would be possible to search on all the’ validation status’ fields containing the term ‘No signal’.

Electronic lab notebooks also make it possible to build in a second level of structure through the ability to create links between records, for example between a record of an experiment and a record of an antibody used in the experiment.  Links are useful at this one-to-one level.  Moreover, by creating a series of links it is also possible to build databases, as reflected in the visualization below of a series of linked records.

class-diagram.png

4.  Sharing data and information

Electronic lab notebooks are designed to facilitate collaboration among a group of researchers. They do this with a permissions system that permits some records to be accessed by the entire group, some records to be accessed by subsets of the group, and some records to be kept entirely private.  In addition, they provide different kinds of access to different records or sets of records.  For example, the PI and the student conducting an experiment might have view and edit permission on the experiment record, so that the student could document the experiment and the PI could comment on it, and other members of the lab might have view only permission, so that they could observe and learn.

Electronic lab notebooks also permit permissions to be inherited by ‘child records’.  So, once the permissions are set on a particular project folder, all the experiments created within that folder have the same set of permissions, and it is not necessary to reset permissions each time a new experiment is set up.

Electronic lab notebooks also allow the creation of groups of users.  Typically there is an ‘all users’ group, and groups of smaller sets of users working together on particular projects.  Again, this makes setting permissions more streamlined.  For example, on records which everyone is to have access to, permissions are set for the all users group, and since everyone is a member of that group, it is not necessary to set permissions for each individual.

5.  Communicating

It’s pretty hard to collaborate if you can’t communicate, so good electronic lab notebooks include a messaging system.  This acts as an internal email capability, but it should also do more.  Ideally there should be the ability to make links in messages to other records in the ELN, so for example when a student sends a message to their PI to say that a particular experiment is ready for review and comment, the student can put a link in the message to the experiment record, so that all the PI has to do to access the record is to click on the link.

Online electronic lab notebooks are accessible 24/7 through any web browser, so they allow a new level of flexibility in communication between lab members.  No need to make an appointment during offfice hours to look at someone’s paper lab notebook.  You can now view it, and comment on it, at a time that is convenient to you, for example at home in the evening.  And when you are on the road you can stay in touch with the work that’s going on back in the lab because you can login over the internet, in the evening, between meetings, or whenever it suits you, and see what people have been doing.

7 Things to consider before adopting an electronic lab notebook for your lab

Posted by Rory on September 16th, 2010 @ 8:43 am

Adopting an electronic lab notebook for your lab is not a decision to be taken lightly. It will take time and effort on your part and is likely to meet with mixed reactions from other lab members — delight/relief from some but also suspicion/hesitancy from others.  It will involve at least some changes in working practices for everyone. So, what things should you consider before you begin the process of looking at what’s out there and what kind of ELN suits you and your lab?

1.  You!

There’s no better place to start with than yourself.  Lab heads/PIs who successfully introduce ELNs in their labs tend to be:

  • Comfortable with computers and software
  • Not afraid to try out new software applications
  • Strong leaders within their labs
  • Well organized
  • Interested in improving collaboration within the lab
  • Interested in the benefits deriving from the lab working together more effectively as a group, such as more research data being captured and archived in a way that it can be found and used in the future.

2.  Other lab members

Let’s assume you’re ready to drive the process of adopting an ELN, but what about the rest of the lab?  There are a couple of things to consider here.  First, are there one or two lab members who are likely to be positive about adopting an ELN and prepared to help you with testing a system and rolling it out?    You will want to test the ELN yourself, but you probably will not want to do all the work involved in bringing others up to speed.  So someone — a research technician, a lab admin person, or just an enthusiast — who is willing to take on that role could be invaluable.  Second, what is the range of attitudes to ELNs among the lab members?  If the general attitude is neutral to positive, you’re in good shape, but if there are significant pockets of resistance you and your ‘allies’ will need to work out a strategy for bringing the sceptics along, e.g. by pairing them up with a mentor.

3.  IT infrastructure

In addition to considering the people side of your lab, you need to consider the IT environment. Do you have a computer system which is reliable and available to host the ELN?  If not, are you or your department in a position to purchase a new computer to host the ELN?

4.  IT support

How good is your IT support and how good is your relationship with them?  Are they available and happy to help with installing the ELN?  If the answer to this question or the previous one  is no, you may want to consider adopting an ELN which is hosted by the provider, who will take care of the system and backup.

5.  Your lab’s data

What kind of data does your lab deal in?  Do you have lots of images?  Where is the data currently stored and how is it managed?  Do you have a shared file system?   Do lab members use paper lab notebooks for experimental data?  You will need to think about these issues because the ELN you adopt will need to be integrated with your data storage set up, and will require some changes in data management, e.g. experimental data can now be kept in the ELN rather than spread around in everyone’s individual paper labbooks.

6.  Lab working practices

Adopting an ELN may prove to be a lot easier than you imagined (or feared!), but it still is going to require some changes of working practices in the lab.  So it would be useful to think about just what current working practices are, and what areas can be improved by adoption of the ELN.  For one thing, with everyone working in the same online environment there is a lot of scope for (a) increased flexibility, and (b) better and more focussed collaboration.  as an example of flexibility, you will  no longer need to arrange a specific time to look at individual paper labbooks, instead you can view and comment on experiments lab members are working on anytime, from anywhere, when you’re at home in the evening or away at a conference.  Adopting an ELN also opens up new ways of collaborating and communicating about research.  Of course people will still chat at the bench or around the coffee machine.  But with an ELN a particular group can work on documenting a single experiment or a broader project together, again from anywhere, any time and if you like other lab members can be given view (but not edit) permission on the experiment or project, so that they can follow the course of the group’s work.

7.  Timing

Last but certainly not least, you’ll want to introduce the ELN at a time that makes sense in terms of your own schedule, the lab’s overall workload, and movement of people in and out of the lab.  I’ve written another post discussing the pros and cons of adoption at different times.

That’s quite a lot to consider, but if the circumstances are right — they don’t need to be perfect of course — the benefits of adopting an ELN for both you and your lab can be substantial, even transformational, and adoption itself is very likely to be a lot easier than you imagined in advance.

Communicating in electronic lab notebooks

Posted by Rory on September 7th, 2010 @ 10:40 pm

People usually think about electronic lab notebooks as tools for documenting research.  Fair enough since people also usually think about them as replacements for paper lab notebooks.  But ELNs are more than just paper notebooks that have ‘gone electronic’, as Andrew Lemon pointed out in an interesting post called The Electronic Laboratory Notebook Trap.  Andrew views the ELN

“as a product idea that hasn’t yet solidified. Think the Internet in the late 1980s or online advertising in the late 1990s . . .  [This is] for the simple reason that scientific organizations are still in the early stages of exploring what can be done when each of their scientists can (passively) connect with the activities of every other scientist, in real time, independent of geography and possibly – organization . . .  Even the term ‘Electronic Laboratory Notebook’ implies a way of thinking about the concept that may not hold up well over time. To me, this term implies something that does what I’m already doing as a scientist with my paper notebook – just in a new medium.”

But with the new medium comes new opportunities, capabilities and demands. Scientists still need to document their research when they move from a paper lab notebook to an electronic lab notebook.  But an electronic lab notebook is also an online environment  (or at least soon will be; ELNs that are not browser based are rapidly being overtaken by the new generation of online ELNs).  And an online environment opens up new possibilities for collaboration and communication.  Talking about one use for ELNs — student-supervisor interaction — Dave Lunt at the University of Hull makes the point that “paper lab books are a source, not method, of student-supervisor interaction“.  You can talk about paper lab books with other members of your group, but you can’t talk together in the paper lab book.

But talking together is exactly what people expect to be able to do in online environments.  In response to  a recent post exploring the question of how ‘social’ ELNs should be, messages were one of the social features that people wanted in an ELN.  It’s not hard to see why.  An electronic lab notebook that includes a messaging capability allows communication to take place when, where and with whom you like. The paradigm of PI and student agreeing a time to meet in an office or the lab to look over the student’s lab notebook so that the PI can comment on it is replaced by the PI being able to keep in touch with and comment on everyone’s work from anywhere, anytime.   So one to one communication is liberated from the confines of meetings in the lab.

That’s a revolution in itself, but it’s really just the tip of the iceberg.  Focussing on the PI – student relationship brings to mind Andrew Lemon’s comment that,  “Even the term ‘Electronic Laboratory Notebook’ implies a way of thinking about the concept that may not hold up well over time. To me, this term implies something that does what I’m already doing as a scientist with my paper notebook – just in a new medium.”  The bigger change that an online ELN with communication capabilities makes possible  more effective ways of  communication within the group, and that has the potential to transform the way labs operate.

Historically it’s fair to say, I think, that the majority of academic labs fall into the category of  ‘collections of individual researchers’ rather than ‘groups focussed on joint research’.  The film Naturally Obsessed:  The Making of a Scientist depicts the paradigmatic traditional lab which revolves around a series of one to one relationships between the PI and individual students.  Research in the Shapiro lab portrayed in the film, not surprisingly given that it was filmed 2004 – 2007, was documented using paper lab notebooks.  In a recent post I speculated about how the research dynamics in the lab might have changed had the lab been using an electronic lab notebook.  One of the key things an ELN could do is to open up new channels of communication beyond the traditional PI – individual student relationship.

There are various aspects of the possible new group orientation.  One is that, with even a simple messaging system, PI’s can communicate from anywhere, at any time, not just with individuals but with everyone, from anywhere, anytime. Of course they can already do that with email.  But with a messaging capability in the ELN they can link their communication to specific bits of research and to other pieces of information such as protocols, lab meeting notes, etc., which all now reside  in a single integrated environment.

A second aspect of the new ‘group focus’ is the potential for enhanced communication between lab members.  If two or more people are working on a project together they can communicate just with each other, or with each other and the PI, about the project, again with the ability to link to experiments, samples, and other items relating to the project. And they can do this from home in the evening just as easily as in the lab during the day.

ELNs are still in an early phase of development, and have only been adopted by a tiny percentage of academic labs, so it would be premature to predict what they might evolve into.  But given the advantages that come with more convenient and accessible means of communication that takes place within the same integrated environment where members of the lab are documenting their research, it will be surprising if communication capabilities like messaging and chat do not play an increasingly important role in the development of ELNs going forward.  And it will be equally surprising if this in  turn does not help to stimulate a shift from academic labs being collections of individual researchers to being groups of researchers working together.

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What is an electronic lab notebook III: the benefits of structure

Posted by Rory on July 21st, 2010 @ 8:43 pm

The last post and the one before that looked at different views on who electronic lab notebooks are for — individuals or the lab — and how wikis measure up as environments that  enable lab members to enter and share experimental data.  Notwithstanding their attraction as convenient online tools for sharing general information, wikis lack structure, and it is primarily this which has kept even labs that use wikis wedded to the paper lab notebook for documenting experiments.

In this post we’ll look at why the ability to add structure to research data  is the key enabler permitting the transition from paper lab notebooks to electronic lab notebooks.

Paper lab notebooks support as much structure as you like.  You can create sections, paste copies of images, make notes in the margin, draw diagrams — the only limit to adding structure to a paper lab notebook is the scientist’s imagination.    Unlike a wiki, an electronic lab notebook allows you to replicate the structure that you put into a paper lab notebook.  Why?  Because an electronic lab notebook allows the creation of records with different kinds of fields.  This supports structuring your research data in two ways. First, the different types of fields support entry of information in differing ways, e.g. by date or time, by entry of text, by number, with radio buttons signalling  series of mutually exclusive options, etc.  Second, different classes of records can be put together with different combinations of various kinds of fields, so creating types of records that are appropriate to different aspects of research, e.g. a CHiP experiment, a freezer, a particular protocol,or an antibody.   This is in stark contrast to the wiki, which has only one type of record — the wiki page — and an undifferentiated one at that with no support for separation into different fields.

The benefits of this structure extend further to the other  things you use in your research like images and spreadsheets.  Like wikis, electronic lab notebooks have the advantage over paper lab notebooks of being able to make links to images and spreadsheets, which can also be inserted into the electronic repository — wiki or electronic lab notebook.  But electronic lab notebooks offer superior structuring capabilities in this respect too, because with an electronic lab notebook, unlike a wiki, you can associate a spreadsheet, image or other electronic item with a particular field of a particular kind within a record.

Making use of an electronic lab notebook’s ability to create records with different kinds of fields allows you to put structure into the record of your research in an online electronic environment much as you did with a paper lab notebook and at the same time gain the benefits of associations between bits of information which can only be made in an online environment, so they actually enable taking structuring of research data to a new and higher level.  It is this element – the ability to add structure to research data – which explains why that electronic lab notebooks — and not wikis — provide the best platform for labs  wishing to move from paper to electronic recording and management of their research data.  This is the unstated driver that lies behind wikipedia’s definition of electronic lab notebook as “a software program designed to replace paper lab notebooks“.    And so, I would revise that definition and say that an electronic lab notebook is an online environment that provides a sufficient capability for structuring research data to enable scientists to document and share their research data in that environment without the need to also resort to a paper lab  notebook.

What is an electronic lab notebook II — how do wikis measure up?

Posted by Rory on July 14th, 2010 @ 7:00 am

In the last post I poked a bit of fun at the wikipedia definition of  electronic lab notebook — “a software program designed to replace paper lab notebooks”.  Since that could mean just about anything, beauty is in the eye of the beholder.  The big dividing line is between people — like postdocs and graduate students — looking for a note taking tool for themselves, and others — like PIs — looking for a collaborative research tool for the lab.

This time I’m going to take a look at wikis — how do they measure up to the challenge faced by PIs looking for a collaborative research tool:  organizing and keeping track of a wide range of types of research data generated by lab members, present, past and future?   The first point to make is that there are all sorts of wikis, with varying degrees of sophistication, power and capabilities.    I’m going to use the most developed wikis as a point of comparison here — Confluence and PBWorks are good examples — wikis with a fully developed feature set.

As a recent study looking in depth at the work practices of seven life sciences research labs pointed out, a growing number of labs have turned to wikis as convenient environments for storing and sharing general information like meeting notes and protocols.  Wikis have a number of attractions to labs, in that they are easy to learn and use, online, and provide good support for sharing and collaboration.  In addition, the more sophisticated wikis have integrated messaging systems and some, like PBWorks, even have voice conferencing capabilities.

At the top end, then, wikis are becoming fully fledged knowledge management tools.  But features like voice conferencing are aimed at businesses, not labs.  For labs the key issue is managing their data. The study notes that notwithstanding the trend towards organizing general information in wikis, all the labs studied still maintain paper lab notebooks.  Paper lab notebooks stand out as an island of tradition in the midst of a growing ocean of online information sharing.    An island perhaps but a pretty big island, Australia rather than Fiji if you will, because paper lab notebooks are the repositories for the most important information labs deal with, their research data.

On this evidence wikis are falling short as a software program that replaces paper lab notebooks, and hence are not functioning as electronic lab notebooks per the wikipedia definition.  Why are labs staying with paper lab notebooks even as they adopt wikis to share information other than research data?  Inertia no doubt is a big part of the reason.  But the other big barrier to adoption of tools in labs — they have to be easy to learn and easy to use — is probably less of a factor.  Wikis  are coming into general use and it’s not the wiki per se that is being resisted, its the use of the wiki specifically as a place for entering and sharing research data.

Here’s a hypothesis:  the reason labs are sticking with paper lab notebooks for dealing with experimental data and not moving their experimental data into wikis along with general information like meeting notes and protocols is that wikis are unable to provide structure for the data.  With a wiki all you get is the wiki page.  It has no more support for structure than a Word document, and even less structure than a spreadsheet, without  doubt the most popular electronic repository for experimental research data.  Next time I will look in more detail at how electronic lab notebooks provide support for structuring research data and the benefits this can bring to collaboration and communication in the lab.

What is an electronic lab notebook?

Posted by Rory on July 6th, 2010 @ 9:30 pm

Welcome to the electronic lab notebook blog.  This will be a space for discussing electronic lab notebooks from every angle:  what benefits do they bring? how do they compare with alternatives? what kinds of features do they have and should they have? what issues do people face in using them?  how can you get the most out of them?

In this first post I’m going to start at the beginning:  what is an electronic lab notebook?

Wikipedia defines electronic lab notebook as “a software program designed to replace paper lab notebooks“.  That could be just about anything — beauty is in the eyes of the beholder!   I’ll take a look in a second at who the relevant beholders are and what each of them thinks, but taking wikipedia as the starting point it’s  fair to say first that all of them are looking to move away from this:

Postdocs and graduate students

So who are the relevant beholders?  They can be divided into two categories.  The first is people looking for an electronic note taking device for themselves.  They tend to be interested in convenience and simplicity.  Something which is easy to use and also helps them get organized.     But many postdocs and grad students want something which also provides  support for research.  Here is one description of the ‘dream app’ over on an Apple forum about electronic lab notebooks:

  • easy copy-pasting/drag ‘n drop
  • ability to re-open the files
  • metadata and search (tags, keywords, …)
  • possiblity to link to older notes and graphs
  • store PDF (or TIFF) representation of external files along with the original file: preview files without their originating application
  • automated backup mechanism
  • encryption on disk

The thread following that post contains a good discussion of the varieties of things people want in an electronic lab notebook for their own use, examples of what they have tried, what they like and dislike, and the limitations of the available tools.

PIs

The second category of people looking for an electronic lab notebook want a collaborative tool rather than one aimed at individuals.  They tend to be PIs, or in some cases others in the lab who’ve been asked by the PI to identify a suitable tool. Like those looking for an individual tool, PIs want something which is simple to use and easy to learn.  But beyond that their needs diverge from that of individual scientists. Professor Mike Shipston of the University of Edinburgh provides a good summary of the kinds of challenges that drive PIs to look at adopting an electronic lab notebook:

“We generate a wide variety of types of data sets, for example data from molecular analysis, quantitative analysis, for example quantitative RTPCR, gene cloning, through to electrophysiological analysis, for example from confocal images and total internal reflective microscopy right up to behaviorial assays in animals.  So its really about coordinating those types of data sets that fit together, keeping them contained within projects, because the data sets are derived from different people within the lab.  Also we have a very big extended network both in the UK and across Europe and the US.  It’s about keeping that information together. We have a large number of people coming in and out of the lab, the challenge is keeping track of that data and integrating it in with data from existing projects.”

Well that’s it for this first post — I realize I haven’t yet provided an answer to the question of what an electronic lab notebook is!  The next post is going to look at the tool that has been most widely adopted by labs looking for a collaborative tool, wikis.  I’ll discuss the strengths and limitations of wikis and whether they do – or should – qualify as electronic lab notebooks.  And don’t worry, I promise to come back with a specific answer to the question of what an electronic lab notebook is.